You may think that Christmas season is finished. Not so fast. January 7 is the Christmas day by the Eastern Orthodox Church calendar, so this is the high time for Christmas celebrations in Eastern Europe — Russia and Ukraine, in particular. Ever wondered why? Read on.
The story begins with the Solar System. Most people know that Earth year is approximately 365 days. By the age of 4 or 8 years, most people learn that the year is approximately 1/4 day longer than 365 years. The accrued extra day is added as Februrary 29th every 4 years. The “long” year is called leap year. Almost every year that can be divided by 4 is a leap year. The calendar accounting for the extra day every 4 years was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and is, therefore, called Julian.
By the age of 100 or 200, most people learn that the year is approximately 0.008 days shorter than 365 and 1/4. The accrued missing day is taken away by skipping 3 leap years every 400 years. Each year that can be divided by 100 is not a leap year unless it can also be divided by 400. Years 1900 and1800 are not leap years. Year 2000 is a leap year. Of course, most people do not live to the age of 100 or 200 and never learn that most centennial years are not leap. The calendar accounting for the missing leap years was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 and is, therefore, called Gregorian. They do have to know a thing or two about science, those Popes.
The “approximately” does not end there. Of course, there are more decimal places in the length of the year calling for more adjustments, but most of the people do not live long enough to notice.
By 1582, the 0.008 days every year have accrued 11 days. Gregorian calendar corrected Julian calendar by skipping 11 days in October 1582:
Atheists are not the only people who think that Pope is no authority to them. Protestants and Americans have not adopted Gregorian calendar until September 1752. By the time they decided to switch, they had to skip 12 days:
(as if there were United States in 1752). When I learned UNIX commands in college, I was surprised to find out that UNIX “cal 1752” command produces this:
You may be surprised to learn that Eastern Orthodox Church is still using Julian calendar for its holidays! Now, the difference is 13 days! So, Orthodox Christmas is on December 25, except that December 25 “old style” falls on January 7 “new style”. For the same reason, the anniversary of The Great October Socialist Revolution, a major holiday in the Soviet Union, was celebrated on November 7. When the revolution happened, it was October 25th, but when the Soviet Union converted to Gregorian calendar in 1929, the date moved to November 7th. Julian calendar was still in use until 1930 in the Soviet Union. In year 2100, another leap year will be skipped adding to the schism separating Eastern Orthodox Christians from the rest of the world. Starting from year 2101, Orthodox Christmas will move forward another day — to January 8th. I wonder, how well this change will be received.
In case you wonder, yes, they celebrate the New Year “old style” on January 14 in Eastern Europe. It’s called “the old new year“.
Perhaps, to clarify my views on religion and atheism, it would be useful to describe my personal experience with them. When people do not know each other’s background, a lot of time can be wasted to explain and argue about things both sides already know and understand.
I grew up in Soviet Ukraine. If I was indoctrinated in any ideology, it was Marxism-Leninism. Every classroom in every school had a portrait of Lenin above the blackboard. Most children’s books were required to have an ideologically slanted story about Lenin, Communist Party or a hint about class struggle. As a child, I was extremely happy to be born in the Soviet Union – a country that builds “bright future” for the working people. I was terrified at the thought that the “evil” Western imperialists were escalating the nuclear arms race aiming to destroy my country which promoted friendship between nations and solidarity of the working people.
In elementary school, all children in my class were accepted in a youth “organization” called “Oktiabriata” (something like “children of October” – the word “Red October” often meant “the Great October Socialist Revolution” – the Bolshevik putsch of 1917). Children did not do much as members of this “organization”, there were no leadership or formal activities, but wearing a red star with the portrait of “young Lenin” imposed “duty” to behave properly lest you be found “unworthy” to wear the token.
In middle school, all children were accepted into the “Pioneer Organization”. The ceremony of “initiation” was solemn and pompous. It was held at the Lenin Museum – an institution present in any large city dedicated to the life of the leader of the world proletariat and to the history of the Communist Party. There were flags and solemn oaths pronounced in unison like the Creed or Pledge of Allegiance. Everyone was “accepted”. To be “excluded”, a child would need to do something really horrible. The word “pioneer” did not have the same meaning as in the America. It meant “the first” in terms of “example to others”. Pioneer organization was modeled after Boy Scouts. Pioneers wore red neckerchiefs meant to symbolize a piece of the Red Flag (red, of course, meant blood of the “freedom fighters”). Pioneer motto was “be prepared” – just like the one of the Boy Scouts. However, “be prepared” meant “to fight for the cause of the Communist Party”. On the upside, there were summer camps and the fun Boy Scout stuff.
When I was 16, I became a member of the “Young Communist League” (Comsomol) – an organization for youth 16 – 28 years old. The organization was modeled after the Communist Party. It had Statute, formal structure, formal meetings, “elected” leadership. In colleges, Comsomol took charge of social life – organized activities, events, parties, performances, celebrations. Of course, all “under the watch” of the Party members who made sure that all of that was “ideologically appropriate”.
It was considered that only the most “worthy” could be accepted. And, indeed, the first students accepted to Comsomol were the “A” students, with exemplary record. It was considered a “special honor” and they had to take an exam on the knowledge of the Statute, the history, etc. However, the next year, everyone else was accepted as well, in a general meeting, by the dozen, “pioneer-style”. I had a friend who refused to join. Everyone looked down on him, criticized, and tried to “convert”. When asked, why, he said “Why should I? What’s the point?” “But, c’mon! Don’t you want to join ‘the front rows of the Soviet youth?” At that he scoffed which somewhat antagonized people. He was not a popular guy.
Religion was openly discouraged and ridiculed. Clergy were caricatured as corrupt and stupid, collecting tithes and offerings for their own benefit. Religious superstitions were ridiculed. Religion had a stigma of being backwards, believing in nonsense, and “not belonging” to the “front rows of the Communism builders”. Marx’s “Religion is the opium for the people” was a very familiar buzz-phrase. This is why the New Atheist attitude painfully “rings the bell” and, in the minds of people who lived under such regimes, the association between New Atheism and Stalinism pops up immediately. On the other hand, my parents, my family, my friends, and I were all atheists – happy, enthusiastic, with reasonable ethics. So, I do not have the nonsensical stereotype that atheists are gloomy and immoral.
I did not witness any physical persecutions against believers (Stalin’s era ended long before I was born). Religion did exist, but was formally separated from the state. At my school, I recall one year when during Easter, most “worthy” Pioneers were “asked” by the school staff to take “vigils” near the churches to watch if any of the students attended the service and snitch to the school administration. Such students would then undergo some scolding. There are rumors that KGB controlled Russian Orthodox Church and used priests as informants. I guess, those who did not want to cooperate, have been eliminated. Many churches have been closed down, turned into concert halls (excellent acoustic), dance clubs, or vegetable warehouses (in rural areas) or simply destroyed.
In the Soviet Union, education was fairly good. It was free – up to the highest degrees. Students received a small allowance. “A” students received double. Science was funded well. Especially, military research projects (much like in the U.S.) However, intellectuals were not “trusted” by the Party. The role of “hegemon” was reserved to “proletariat”. (I feel that I overuse the quotation marks, but there was so much bigotry that these words were not used according to their dictionary definitions.) Still, Soviet science made huge advances. As you may know, the Soviet Union developed a nuclear bomb almost simultaneously with the U.S. (there are rumors that it was not “independent” and there was much spying involved, but nevertheless). The hydrogen bomb is credited to Saharov. The first orbiting satellite “Sputnik” was launched by Russians, the first man in the orbit, Yuri Gagarin, was Russian, the first woman as well. But the U.S. did “beat” Russians sending the first man to the moon. Kudos. The space stuff was, mostly, a political show-off. Many Russian scientists emigrated to the West after the collapse of the Soviet Union. As for me, I earned a 5-year bachelor’s degree in physics, completed a graduate degree with major in solid state physics. Emigrated to the U.S., and earned M.S. in electrical engineering specializing in semiconductor device physics and semiconductor processing. Сurriculum at my alma mater in Ukraine was extensive. I took full courses of classical mechanics, thermodynamics, electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, optics, calculus, differential equations, analytical geometry, higher algebra, group theory, solid state physics, cosmology, astronomy, etc. I am writing this not to show off, but, again, to explain my background. Despite the high level of education and science in the Soviet Union, genetics was banned by Stalin as contradicting the principles of dialectic materialism.
As I may have shown, Soviet people have been deeply “indoctrinated” and had a lot of stereotypes and unjustified beliefs. There were lots of Soviet “myths”. Lenin was, virtually, sanctified. There was a long line always waiting to see his body in the tomb on the Red Square (I think, it’s still there). Soviet people believed in a lot of nonsense. Yet, note the level of education and science. It’s worth noting also that Newton was deeply religious, Gregor Mendel, the father of genetics, was a monk, and Georges Lemaître who created the big bang theory was a Catholic priest. These facts make me believe that the claim of New Atheists that indoctrination with religion or other ideology stands in the way of scientific critical thinking and understanding science is simply untrue. Such statements seem to come from a huge confirmation bias. One needs to deliberately ignore a lot of facts to make such statements. I cannot call people who make them “critical independent thinkers”.
I will describe my experience with religion in a future post.
Some Soviet anti-religious propaganda posters
I know, many would say “but this is not atheism. This is communism.” I would address this in some other post.